The corneal epithelium is a stratified squamous epithelium from which superficial terminal cells are naturally shed. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is characterized by a loss or deficiency of the stem cells in the limbus that are vital for re-population of the corneal epithelium and to the barrier function of the limbus. When these stem cells are lost, the corneal epithelium is unable to repair and renew itself. This results in epithelial breakdown and persistent epithelial defects, corneal conjunctivalization and neovascularization, corneal scarring, and chronic inflammation. All of these contribute to loss of corneal clarity, potential vision loss, chronic pain, photophobia, and keratoplasty failure.